西游记的作者简介和创作背景是什么

吴承恩

吴承恩(约1500年—约1582年),字如中,别号射阳山,淮安府山阳县(今江苏省淮安市)人。

吴承恩出生在一个从低级官员降为小商人的家庭。 父亲吴锐性格乐观豁达,奉行长乐哲学。 他给他起名承恩,字如中,意思是希望他能够读书做官,继承皇宠。 夏泽人,做一个会留名史册的忠臣吧。 吴承恩自幼勤奋好学。 他一眼就能读出十行字,并背诵所见。 工书画。 他喜欢作词和作曲。 他还精通围棋。 他还喜欢收集名人字画贴画。 少年时,他就以杰出的文学才华闻名于家乡。 他受到人们的赞赏,认为他考取了科举,“如采芥末”。 《淮安府志》记载他“敏感聪敏,博览群书,工诗文”。 除了好学之外,他还特别喜欢探奇、猎怪,喜欢看神、鬼、狐猴、妖怪、猴精。 图书。 《百怪》、《酉阳杂祖》等小说野史,以及这些丰富多彩的神话世界,让人潜意识里养成了寻找奇物、猎杀怪物的爱好。 随着年龄的增长,这种爱好有增无减。 这对他创作《西游记》产生了重大影响。 30岁以后,他已经“满胸”了自己寻找的轶事,也有了创作的打算。 他50岁左右的时候,写下了《西游记》的前十几回,但后来中断了很多年。 直到晚年辞官回到家乡,他才终于完成了《西游记》的创作。

进入青年时代的吴承恩,是一个狂放不羁、心高气傲的少年。 社会地位低下,贫穷困苦,让这位伟人放荡不羁,引来不少笑声,被别人称赞的日子一去不复返了。

吴承恩20岁左右的时候,娶了一位老家的叶姓姑娘,婚后两人的感情非常深厚。 吴承恩虽然狂野不羁,但为人乖巧,对妻子忠心耿耿。

嘉靖十年,吴承恩在乡学、科试中均取得优异成绩,获得科举进士资格,并与友人赴南京参加乡试。 然而,他的才华不如他的同伴,他这个在乡间有名的才子,竟然名声扫地。

第二年春天,父亲遗憾地去世了。 接受了第一次失败的教训,吴承恩在接下来的三年里潜心研究诗文,但嘉靖十三年秋仍然未能考中。 吴承恩心中充满羞愧和怨恨。 今年冬天,他竟然病倒了。 两次乡试落榜,加上父亲的去世,对吴承恩的打击很大。 在他看来,如果你考不上,不但没有理由交钱,而且还会羞辱你的父母和祖先。 但他并不认为自己没有通过考试是因为自己没有能力,而是因为自己运气不好。 他认为“名利各有命运,非要得到,是不是疯了?”

吴承恩一生不拘一格,刚正不阿。 他之所以才华横溢却屡试不爽,很可能与他不愿为了取悦上级而发表违背自己意愿的言论有关。 他对腐败官场深恶痛绝,不愿违背自己的内心,对黑暗的现实抱有消极的态度。 他在《二郎寻山图歌》诗中写道:“百姓之祸,衣露显露,非猿鹤,乃沙虫。我坐观歌中五鬼。”皇朝,却不见于婷惩治四恶,野人怀孕,万分感激,计事叹息,胸口杀邪刀已磨损,又不能激起仇恨,我有救月亮的箭,也有救日的弓,世上没有英雄吗?谁能给我一只凤凰,一份长久的命令,让我们永远在一起千年?清宁宫。” 他认为,“民难”的形成和社会现实的丑陋,是因为统治者用人不当,任由“五鬼”、“四害”等坏人掌权。 他想“带临风”,践行“王道”,扭转局面,但他的才华不被认可,他的野心也没有实现。 他只能大方地迎风叹息。

艰难的生活给吴承恩带来的压力,不亚于科考失利。 父亲去世后,他需要承担家里的一切开支,但他没有养家的能力,更没有养家的手段。 家里的经济来源,除了每个月从学校领取六斗米外,只能靠父亲留下的遗产过活。

经历了社会生活的坎坷之后,吴承恩开始更加清晰、深入地思考社会生活问题,并用诗歌来对抗不合理的社会。

吴承恩曾写过一部奇事小说《玉鼎之》。 他在本书的序言中表示,他的野心、神话小说虽然是神鬼故事,但实际上都是以“人间”为中心,以期寄托自己的政治理想,痛斥恶势力,让读者“ “可怕又容易担心”并不是无所作为,或者寻找奇怪的事情来让人发笑。 他创作《西游记》也是出于同样的目的。 《西游记》第四十五回中写道,孙悟空安排自然神播云雷雨时,特命雷神邓天君说道: “老邓给我仔细观察了那些贪污违法、不孝不孝的官员,儿子,你再杀几个,让大家看看!” 孙悟空最痛恨的就是“贪官污吏”,这与吴承恩在很多诗词中对贪官污吏的特殊痛恨完全一致。 《西游记》的神话世界里,处处都有人间的影子:神圣的天国表面上金碧辉煌,但至高无上的玉皇大帝却智愚难辨​​,十分平庸。 天人王朝相似; 黑道森严,官员互相保护,贪污恶人犯法,无辜百姓难以伸冤。 与人间的衙门无异, 妖魔鬼怪乐于杀人食人,贪财色欲,依靠法术、法术称霸,无恶不作。 他们简直就是世界上恶霸和官僚的化身。 《西游记》还写了一些人类国家,这些国家的统治者大多“文不德,武不善,王无德”。 这也是明朝帝王大臣为国家和人民带来灾难的罪行的写照。 吴承恩饰演的孙悟空,憎恨邪恶,拥有浩瀚的神通。 在他的金箍棒之下,一切凶恶狂暴的妖魔鬼怪都被赶离了昔日的威严,要么死去,要么被俘虏,无药可救。 这都体现了吴承恩为清理社会丑恶现象和邪恶势力所做的努力。 强烈的愿望也是《西游记》中民主的本质。

一生清贫的吴承恩努力完成了闻名中外的《西游记》,于万历十年左右在悲喜交加中去世。

《西游记》的出现,开辟了神魔长篇小说的新门类。 该书将善意的嘲讽、辛辣的讽刺和严肃的批评巧妙地结合在一起,直接影响了讽刺小说的发展。 《西游记》是古代小说浪漫主义的顶峰。 在世界文学史上,也是浪漫主义的代表作。 《美国百科全书》认为它是“一部内容丰富、构思精妙的神话小说”,《法国百科全书》则说:“书中对故事的描述充满幽默和趣味,给读者带来浓厚的兴趣。” 自19世纪以来,已被翻译成日、英、法、德、俄等十多种文字,流行于世界。

《西游记》的作者是吴承恩吗? 数百年来一直是历史之谜。 20世纪20年代,胡适和鲁迅向清代学者争论,《西游记》的作者是淮安嘉靖的中年贡生吴承恩。 不过,从目前能看到的各个版本的《西游记》来看,没有一个是吴承恩署名的。 近日,北京图书馆出版社出版了《谈吴承恩——揭秘《西游记》作者》一书,提出《西游记》的作者不是吴承恩,而是李春芳,明嘉靖年间的“庆慈宰相”。

研究思路是从世德堂《新刻字西游记》前卷《华阳洞天竺派》中的“派”字入手,与杨志和的《西游记》进行比较,朱鼎臣的《十恶传》通过两个版本之间增删改查的情节变化和发展,来展示小说的写作过程,理顺三个版本的出版顺序,结合思想。从中所体现的佛、道、儒三家思想的脉络来追溯小说的渊源。 对《西游记》作者的经历和身份的研究显示,《西游记》这本书与吴承恩无关。 真正的作者应该是明嘉靖年间的“青瓷宰相”李春芳。

吴承恩有诗《致李师路太史》,师路是李春芳的小名。 李季隶属江苏省兴化县。 嘉靖年间,因善写《清辞》,科举状元,升为宰相。 年轻时曾在江苏华阳洞求学,故又称“华阳洞大师”。 曾任正学“永乐大典”。 《西游记》第九十五回有诗云:“漫天五彩祥雾飘香,荒山忽吉祥;虹流万年,清江海,电绕长春赛玉堂,草木雍容添美,野花绽放润泽芬芳,古时长辈留痕,今喜明君降宝大厅。” 沉先生发现,这首诗的第四、五、六、七句暗指“李春芳老人留下的痕迹”,与题名“华阳洞天竹晓”所指的“编撰《游记》”相符。西方”。

胡适、鲁迅断言吴承恩是《西游记》作者的依据,是明日启鉴所著的《淮安府志》,其中记载吴承恩写《西游记》,但没有解释它是什么类型的书。 清代咸丰重印《淮安府志》,删去了此文。

1983年底,张培恒先生在《西游记百章是否为吴承恩所写》中指出,《西游记》问世至今的300多年来到了1920年代,各种刊物要么是朱鼎臣主编,要么是朱鼎臣主编。 只署华阳洞天柱而无作者姓名,或为丘处机所书。 他们都不承认吴承恩的版权。 胡适1921年的《西游记序》也说这部作品“是明代中叶以后一位无名小说家所写”。 后来鲁迅先生极力主张吴承恩说胡适得到了鲁迅抄给他的材料,他在《西游记考证》中也持这种观点。 然而,仔细观察他们的研究发现,有两种间接材料,只有一种直接材料。

间接材料一:吴与义(1698-1773)《山阳志异》卷四:

田七旧《志》(指田七《淮安府志》)李先生(指吴承恩)是近代文坛的领军人物。 上面写着:“敏感聪慧,博览群书,着有诗文,善于幽默风趣。” 他写过几种杂记,使他一时名声大噪。”起初我不知道杂记是什么,但读了《淮县文目》后,记载写有《西游记》。先生据《西游记》考,原名《正道书》,据说符合金丹主旨,元代道观秩序。据说此书是国初真人丘长春所著,县志又说是楚先生所著。言辞必有根据,意思是这个记载是在长春初春写成的,支先生就此写了一部脍炙人口的言情小说,比如陈寿版的《三国志》,罗贯中的《燕异》。书里有很多家乡的方言,毫无疑问是淮人写的。 或曰:有射阳先生所著的《西游记》。

吴玉杰发表《西游记》已经近200年了,他判断的唯一依据就是明启的《淮安府志》。 他的话语权其实和我们差不多。

间接材料2:阮奎生(1727-1789)《茶客谈》卷21:

据旧《志》记载,射阳性情敏感,聪明。 他是诗歌和散文的作者。 他很会开玩笑,写过几篇杂七杂八的笔记。 遗憾的是,杂记的标题没有注明,但《淮县文目》中收录了射阳写的脍炙人口的言情小说《西游记》。 此书明初流行,弄堂里的人都爱议论,但以前从未听说过。 ……据《明县志》载,相传为射阳所著。 射阳去不远的地方修炼自己的野心。 他怎么能被列入风靡世界的元代小说之列呢? 也许长春初期就有这个记载,而射阳的故事就是根据这个故事改编的,这是一种非常离奇诡谲的世界观; 正如《左氏》有《万国之志》,《三国志》有《燕邑》。 从其中的方言、俚语来看,都是淮上街头所说的,巷子里、集市上的妇女儿童都能听懂。 但外地人读起来并不总是一样,所以毫无疑问是淮人写的。

这里唯一的判断依据是田七的《淮安府志》。 按照鲁迅先生的分析,阮奎生居然是根据《无语》第四卷写的? “浮山喜剧”是“浮山喜剧”的误称。 吴和阮在书中都提到了淮上话,但他们都证实吴承恩的作品是小说《西游记》之后的旁证。 然而,学术界对于小说中的方言问题却存在较大争议。 清初黄太鸿的《西游正道书跋》中已载明:“篇中多有金陵方言”。 清代自称吴承恩为作者的还有丁衍的《石亭年谱续》、焦训的《戏说》等。 然而,他们要么依靠《淮安府志》,要么依靠《察舆科话》,这意味着他们将版权授予吴承恩实际上只有一个依据。

直接材料:田七《淮安府志》卷十九《艺文志》1《淮县文目》:

吴承恩:《射阳集》口述四卷; 《春秋传序》; 《西游记》。

张培恒先生根据这份材料,从正反两方面进行了论证。

正面:

《淮安府志》没有标明吴承恩《西游记》的卷数或章节数,也没有说明章节的性质。 历史上经常有两部同名作品。 例如,清初沉潜、唐孙华各有一部《东江笔记集》,明清时期有一部小说,名为《如意君传》。 比吴承恩大二十岁左右的安国也写过《西游记》,不过是一篇游记。 因此,不能断定吴承恩的《西游记》就是百回版的《西游记》。

背面:

清初著名藏书家黄玉吉,在《钱清堂书目》卷八历史部地理类中有如下记述:

唐和正《南游记》三卷,吴承恩《西游记》一卷,沈明臣《四明山游记》一卷

当时,距离万历二十年(1592年)《西游记》首次出版,已经过去了半个多世纪。 本来就已经是一本家喻户晓的书了,但黄宇吉却明确地将吴承恩的《西游记》归入了地理范畴。 由此可见,本书只是一般意义上的游记,就像吴承恩同时代人写的《东游记》、《南游记》等游记一样。

专家认为,关于《西游记》的作者历来有多种说法,大多否认是吴承恩所著。 也有人认为李春芳是当年《西游记》的作者。 暗示李春芳是根据《西游记》中的一首诗改编的,缺乏足够的说服力。 这只能是一个家庭的意见。 要真正解开《西游记》作者的历史谜团,还需要进一步挖掘更多的第一手资料。

参考:百度百科

吴承恩简介:吴承恩(1506年—1582年),字汝中,号射阳,明代文学家,河下淮安人,长篇小说《西游记》作者。 吴承恩年轻时喜欢听淮河水神和大圣的故事。 中年以后,他开始将唐僧西游故事与唐传奇、佛道经典、民间故事、淮安当地奇闻结合起来。 )”,他写下了数百回的长篇小说《西游记》。此书一问世,就被誉为“四大名著”之一,成为世界文坛的瑰宝。

吴承恩(1510?-1582?),明代小说家。 字汝中,别号射阳山,淮安山阳(江苏淮安)人。 他出生于一个从学者到商人的家庭,家境贫寒。 吴承恩从小就非常聪明。 《淮安府志》记载他“敏感聪慧,博览群书,工诗文”。 但他科举不及格,直到中年才被认定为“隋公圣”。 后居南京,长期靠卖文学养家。 晚年因家贫,任长兴县令。 他很快就因无法忍受官场的黑暗而愤然辞职。

吴承恩精于书画,多才多艺。

吴承恩(1506—1582),字汝中,号射阳,明代文学家,淮安人。 他是长篇小说《西游记》的作者。 他出生在错误的时间,一生坎坷。 然而,在他去世 400 年后,人们发现了他的坟墓、骨头和一些铭文。 淮安河下大同巷已重建吴承恩故居,马店乡二堡村吴承恩墓地也已修缮一新。

吴承恩年轻时喜欢听淮河水神和大圣的故事。 中年以后,他开始将唐僧西游记的故事与唐传奇、佛道经典、民间故事、淮安地方轶事相结合,在书房创作了数百篇。 小说《西游记》。 此书一问世,被誉为“四大名著”之一,成为世界文坛的瑰宝。

吴承恩精于书画,多才多艺。 然而,他中年时科举失利,成为贡生。 60岁时,他被任命为长兴县令,但因与上级不和而辞职。 后来,季善被任命为靖王府。

吴承恩的父亲吴瑞(1461年—1532年),字廷奇,号居翁,为人忠厚,喜谈史传,喜游览淮河名胜古刹。 他经常给年幼的吴承恩讲有关民间神魔的故事。 吴瑞与一位经营花边和线的商人的女儿徐结婚。 徐氏生有一女,取名吴成嘉,嫁给淮安户部尚书沉仪宗人沉山。 中年后,吴瑞再次与张氏结婚,并生下著名作家吴承恩。

西游记简介(作者吴承恩)

《西游记》主要讲述了孙悟空保护唐僧西天取经,经历八十一难的故事。 唐僧研习佛经,是历史上真实存在的事情。 大约1300年前,唐太宗贞观元年(627年),25岁的小和尚玄奘离开首都长安,只身前往天竺(印度)求学。 从长安出发,途经中亚、阿富汗、巴基斯坦,历尽千辛万苦,终于抵达印度。 他在那里学习了两年多,并在一场大型佛经辩论会上发表主旨演讲,受到好评。 贞观十九年(645年),玄奘回到长安,带回佛经657部。 他的西天取经之路历时十九年,行经万里。 这是一次轰动一时的传奇长征。 后来,玄奘的口述西游记被弟子辩机编成十二卷《大唐西域记》。 但这本书主要讲述的是路上看到的国家的历史、地理和交通,没有任何故事。 其弟子慧理、延琮在撰写《唐大慈恩寺三藏法师传》时,为玄奘的经历增添了不少神话色彩。 从此,唐僧取经的故事开始在民间广为流传。 南宋有《大唐大藏经》,金代有《大唐大藏经》、《桃花会》等,元代剧有吴昌龄的《大唐大藏经》。 《唐代大藏经西域取经》,以及无名氏的《大圣二郎所期》等等,都为《西游记》的创作奠定了基础。 吴承恩也在民间传说、剧本、戏曲的基础上,经过潜心再创作,完成了这部中华民族引以自豪的文学巨著。

吴承恩,字如中,别号射阳山,淮安府山阳(今江苏省淮安市)人。 生于明弘治十三年至正德元年(1500-1510)之间,卒于万历十年(1582)。 吴承恩的曾祖父、祖父都是学者,曾在县学任导师、讲师。 但到了他父亲吴锐这一代,因为家境贫寒,就嫁入了徐家,“然后接手了徐家的生意,做了一个小商人”。 尽管如此,吴家并没有丧失读书的传统。 据说,他的父亲吴锐虽然是一名商人,但他不仅为人正派,而且善于读书、谈论时事。 这自然对吴承恩影响很大。 吴承恩从小就非常聪明。 他很早就入学了。 他年少成名,在家乡名声大噪。 田启《淮安府志》卷十六称吴承恩“敏感聪慧,博览群书,工诗文,文成有成”。 然而,成年后的吴承恩并不顺利,在科举之路上遇到了重重阻碍。 由于遭遇挫折,他在四十多岁的时候只补了一位三岁的贡生。 五十多岁,任浙江长兴县县令,后任靖王府纪善。 这是一个与县令平级的闲职。 吴承恩创作《西游记》大概是中年后写的,也可以认为是晚年写的。 具体时间无法确定。 除《西游记》外,他还写有长诗《二郎寻山图歌》、《玉鼎志》。 现有《射阳先生手稿》四卷,其中诗卷一卷,散文三卷。 它们是吴承恩去世后,仇都编撰的。 《西游记》全书一百回。 从整体结构来看,可以分为三个部分。 第一章至第八章为第一部分,主要讲述孙悟空的诞生、弟子时期以及天宫里的烦恼。 这是本书中最激动人心的一章。 非常热闹。 孙悟空在天上地下过得很开心,表现出了他的叛逆性格。 淋漓尽致。

第八至十二章为第二部分,主要讲述唐僧的来历和学经的原因。 第13章至最后一章为第三部分。 主要讲述唐僧西天取经的故事。 途中,他先后收了孙悟空、猪八戒、沙和尚三个徒弟。 经过九十九、八十一难,他终于得真经,修成正果。 积极的结果。 《西游记》向人们展示了一个丰富多彩的神魔世界,所有人都惊叹于作者丰富大胆的艺术想象力。 然而任何文学作品都是一定社会生活的反映,神魔小说的杰出代表《西游记》也不例外。 正如鲁迅先生在《中国小说简史》中指出的那样,《西游记》“根据当时的世事状况进行讽刺、调侃,并以夸张的方式进行描述”。 又曰:“作者本性善喜剧,故虽描写变幻突发之事,但每每亦加注解,使神魔有人情味,神韵亦精妙。” 情况确实如此。 透过《西游记》中神魔的虚幻世界,我们随处可见现实社会的投影。 例如,在孙悟空形象的塑造中,作者的理想寄托在其上。 孙悟空顽强拼搏的精神,举起金箍棒、扫除一切妖魔鬼怪的大无畏精神,体现了人民群众的愿望和要求。 他代表着正义的力量,展现了人民战胜一切困难的信念。 又如求经途中遇到的妖魔,可能是天灾的幽灵,也可能是邪恶势力的象征。 他们的贪婪、残忍、阴险、狡诈,也是封建社会黑暗势力的特征。 不仅如此,玉皇大帝统治的天宫和如来佛统治的西方极乐世界也都沾上了浓重的人类社会的色彩。

作者对封建社会最高统治者的态度也颇为有趣。 《西游记》里,根本就没有一个能干的皇帝; 至于愚昧无能的玉皇大帝和宠爱妖怪的车赤王,他却要把孩子当作自己的心和灵魂。 姚印子比丘国的国王要么是个懦夫,要么是个暴君。 这些图像的描绘,即使是简单的画法,却都具有很强的现实意义。 《西游记》不仅具有深刻的思想内容,而且取得了很高的艺术成就。 它以其丰富独特的艺术想象力、生动曲折的故事情节、栩栩如生的人物形象、幽默风趣的语言,构建了一座独特的《西游记》艺术殿堂。 但我认为《西游记》最大的艺术成就是成功塑造了孙悟空和猪八戒这两个不朽的艺术形象。 孙悟空是《西游记》中的第一主角,也是一位非常了不起的英雄。 He has infinite abilities, is not afraid of anything, and has an unyielding spirit of resistance. He has the extraordinary demeanor of a great hero, but also has the disadvantage of loving compliments. He is witty, brave, witty and playful. And his greatest characteristic is his courage to fight. Dare to fight against the supreme Jade Emperor, and he will be known as the “Monkey King”; Dare to fight against demons and monsters, never let go of a monster with his piercing eyes, never show mercy to the monster under the Ruyi Golden Cudgel; Dare to fight against all difficulties Fight, never retreat and bow your head. This is Sun Wukong, a glorious mythological hero. Speaking of Zhu Bajie, his ability is far inferior to that of Sun Wukong, let alone glorious and tall, but this image is also portrayed very well.

Zhu Bajie is a comic figure. He is honest, honest, powerful, and dares to fight monsters. He is Sun Wukong’s first right-hand man. But he is also full of problems, such as eating well, taking advantage of small things, being a womanizer, and being afraid of difficulties. He often retreats and always thinks about Gao Laozhuang’s wife; he sometimes likes to tell lies, but he is clumsy and clumsy. He also said it was unreasonable; from time to time, he provoked Tang Monk to recite the tightening curse to make Sun Wukong suffer; he even hid some private money and stuffed it in his ears. He has many faults, which are the bad habits of small private owners. The author’s criticism of Zhu Bajie’s shortcomings is very harsh, but also well-intentioned. He is not a negated character, so people do not hate Zhu Bajie, but on the contrary, they find him very real and cute. The image of Tang Monk is also well written, but compared to Sun Wukong and Zhu Bajie, it is much inferior. Drifting lacks distinctive character traits, which can not but be said to be a shortcoming of “Journey to the West”. Despite this, the artistic achievements of “Journey to the West” are still very amazing. The two images of Sun Wukong and Zhu Bajie have set up an immortal artistic monument in the history of Chinese literature with their distinctive personalities.

Introduction to Journey to the West

Among Chinese classical novels, “Journey to the West” is one of the four great wonders of the Ming Dynasty, along with Water Margin, Plum in the Golden Vase, and The Romance of the Three Kingdoms. It is a masterpiece that has been circulating among the people for quite some time and is also a household name. Journey to the West is the crystallization of myths, fables, and comedy novels. Its story mainly describes a group of personified animals escorting a Buddhist monk to West India to obtain scriptures, and it also has some fairy tale interest. These animals are all fairy fetuses with magical powers. In order to escort the pilgrims, they deal with gods and demons.

The fantasy world created by the author Wu Cheng’en appears lifelike amidst absurdity, hinting at different aspects of human nature. Sun Wukong was originally a stone monkey, with the dexterity and mischief of a monkey, powerful magic, and good at subduing demons. Zhu Bajie had the clumsy and straightforward character of a pig, and often made fools of himself, creating a lot of jokes.

Since Buddhist pilgrims must pass eighty-one difficulties and overcome the challenges of monsters such as the Bull Demon King, the Spider Spirit, and the White-Bone Spirit one by one before they can complete their quest, this also symbolizes that each person must meet all kinds of challenges in the journey of pursuing their ideals. difficulties and challenges. Journey to the West is loved by both ancient and modern readers mainly because of its successful character creation. In addition to enjoying the comedy effect, readers can also have a profound understanding of human nature and life.

On the surface, Journey to the West is a very interesting comic novel and a supernatural novel. Most readers think that the author’s purpose of writing is just to make you laugh. In fact, the author’s motivation and purpose of writing are definitely not like this. Some people think that Journey to the West is a religious novel that expounds Buddhism, but this statement cannot be completely summarized. Journey to the West should be a very profound satirical novel. We should look at it from the perspective of literature, politics, or sociology in order to understand the true meaning of the book and its literary value.

To understand a literary work, it is best to understand the author’s life and the background of the times. Wu Chengen, the author of Journey to the West, was a man who read a lot and was very talented. But his life’s fortunes were not good. The society at that time was very corrupt, and bribes were required for exams. Because he had no money to bribe academic officials, he failed the examination and remained a scholar until he was in his forties.

Regarding the historical background of Journey to the West, we might as well take a look at the records about Tang Monk in the official history. In the Tang Dynasty, there was Master Xuanzang, also known as Master Tripitaka. He once crossed the desert and went to Western India to obtain Buddhist scriptures. It lasted 19 years and brought back more than 600 Buddhist scriptures back to China. This is the story of Journey to the West. 骨干。 Of course, the protagonist Tang Sanzang in Journey to the West is also a character created by the author to cater to the popular psychology. It is difficult to associate it with the great achievements of Master Xuanzang in official history.

唐三藏

Because although Tang Sanzang is a master who is responsible for learning scriptures in the book, in fact he is a weak personality, hypocritical and afraid of death, and lacks transcendent understanding. Although he is kind and kind, he cannot distinguish right from wrong. Instead, he repeatedly listens to Zhu Bajie’s instigation and misunderstands Sun Wukong, who can see through the devil’s tricks. He always yells “Wukong, save me!” after falling into a trap.

In fact, the image of Tang Monk can be said to coincide with the legendary white-faced scholar. Although full of idealism, he is powerless. When difficulties occur, he is always helpless and waits for foreign help. And his pedantry and ignorance of the truth seem to show the author’s insinuation of the incompetence of those in power. However, if we only look at it from the perspective of religion or personal cultivation, Tang Sanzang does not represent a holy monk, but an ordinary person.

孙悟空

Therefore, the soul character of Journey to the West should be Sun Wukong. Sun Wukong was originally a monkey transformed from a spiritual stone on the Immortal Mountain. Because of his extraordinary courage and wisdom, he was elected as the king by the monkeys. But one day he suddenly realized that life is limited. Although the Monkey King lived a happy life in the Water Curtain Cave with “no armor in the mountains, no age in the cold”, it could not last forever. So he left everything behind and left home to study the immortal way, and from then on he was called “Sun Wukong”.

Sun Wukong is talented and intelligent, and his thoughts and actions are as quick as the wind. He has learned a powerful magic that can change seventy-two times with just one breath. He also has a magical golden cudgel that can shrink like a needle, enlarge like a copper rod, and perform somersault clouds. If you drive it, you can go to heaven and earth. Wukong still has monkey nature, he is smart, naughty and loves to play tricks. He deliberately asked Zhu Bajie to patrol the mountains and explore the road, while he turned into a bug and secretly monitored the lazy Bajie. This shows that he is thoughtful and has a naughty nature.

Sun Wukong is not afraid of heaven or earth, so he dares to make trouble with the Sea Dragon King, hell, and heaven. He also made a bet with Buddha. This shows his rebellious, unwilling to be restrained, and non-conformist personality. His abundant vitality, fearless spirit, down-to-earth character and optimistic personality make him not afraid of hardship and brave to face challenges. His adventurous spirit fully demonstrates the characteristics of a hero. However, his weaknesses are his competitiveness, arrogance and impatience.

猪八戒

Zhu Bajie, another representative character of Yi Le, although he also has magic power, he can only change thirty-six times. Compared with Wukong, he seems stupid and bulky, so he is often made fun of by Wukong. Therefore, he often provoked Wukong in Tang Monk’s ears, causing Wukong to suffer.

Bajie’s characteristics are gluttony, laziness, and emphasis on material enjoyment. When encountering difficulties, he breaks up the team and cannot persevere to the end. During the journey, he was tempted by beautiful women and gold and silver, almost abandoning other people and interrupting his spiritual path. Unexpectedly, it was the incarnation of Bodhisattva who came to test him. Wu Cheng’en’s writing of these behaving ugly behaviors is not critical, but just humorous ridicule. And Zhu Bajie also gives readers a reflection on human greed in the midst of making fools of himself again and again.

沙悟净

As for the other apprentice, Sha Wujing, he wrote less, but presented a resolute, dull, silent and down-to-earth character.

Mr. Luopan (writer):

In history, there really was a great eminent monk who went to India to learn Buddhist scriptures. But the Tang Seng in Journey to the West is by no means the real Tang Seng. The real Tang Monk is not only knowledgeable, but also very perseverant and courageous. When he encountered difficulties, he was not afraid or flinched, and he devoted himself to obtaining the true scriptures. But in Journey to the West, Tang Sanzang is as timid as a mouse, has a weak personality, and even falls off his horse when he encounters difficulties. The small group of “Journey to the West” actually represents a kingdom. Sanzang of the Tang Dynasty represents the cowardly, weak-minded, unclear right from wrong, and incapable of distinguishing between loyalty and treachery.

The theme of Journey to the West is actually cultivating the mind, because doesn’t this journey to the West symbolize the process of us humans constantly correcting our own personality shortcomings? The various monsters and monsters that appear in the story are actually the embodiment of various human desires. Greed, laziness, weakness, and even ignorance are actually traits that humans always need to correct.

Likewise, kindness, honesty, and bravery are also gems of human character. These qualities are demonstrated one by one through the various characters in the story and the battles with gods, demons and monsters. The story tells us that life needs to be tempered, so that we can achieve the true realm of truth, goodness and beauty.